Uses of Tenses                       [in both the cases, none is reading at this moment].
                      THE PRESENT TENSE                                     (iii) For an action that is planned or arranged to
                                                                            take place in the near future.
(1) Present Indefinite Tense                                           For example,
The Present Indefinite or Simple Present Tense is used :         I am going to the party tonight.
           (i) To express a habitual action.                     My father is arriving day after tomorrow.
      For example,                                               Exception : The following Verbs are not generally used in
                  The cock crows every morning.                  the continuous form.
                  I get up everyday at 6.o’ clock.               For example,
                  He goes to school everyday.
                                                                            (a) Verbs of Perception, like : see, hear, smell,
           (ii) To express general truths
                                                                            notice, recognize.
      For example,
                  The earth is round.                                       (b) Verbs of Appearance, like : appear, look, seem.
                  Slow and steady wins the race.                            (c) Verbs of Emotion, like : want, wish, desire,
                  The sun sets in the west.                                 feel, like, love, hate, hope, refuse, prefer.
           (iii) In exclamatory sentences beginning with here               (d) Verbs of Thinking, like : think, suppose, be-
           and there to express what is actually taking place               lieve, agree, consider, trust, remember, forget,
           in the present.                                                  know, understand, imagine, mean, mind.
      For example,                                                          (e) have, own, possess, belong to, contain, con-
                  Here comes the tram!                                      sist of, be etc.
                  There goes the ball!                           (3) Present Perfect Tense
                  There he goes!
                                                                 The Present Perfect Tense is used :
           (iv) In vivid narrative, as substitute for the Simple
           Past.                                                       (i)  To indicate complete activities in the immediate
      For example,                                                          past.
                  The officer now comes forward and tells the          For example,
                  staff to complete all the work by 6 pm.                          He has just finished the work.
                  Immediately the minister hurries to the capi-                    The train has just started.
                  tal.                                                (ii)  To express past actions whose time is not given
                  Sachin now makes quick runs to save the                   and not definite.
                  follow on.
                                                                       For example,
           (v) To indicate a future event that is part of a plan
           or arrangement.                                                         I have never known him to be pessimistic.
      For example,                                                                 Mr. John has been to Europe.
                  We leave for Delhi next Wednesday.                 (iii) To describe past events when we think more of
                  We go to Bangkok next week.                               their effect in the present than of the action it-
                  When does the school reopen?                              self.
           Simple Past is also used to introduce quotations.           For example,
      For example,                                                                 I have finished my homework. (and now I am
                  Rousseau says, "Every man is born free, but                      free).
                  everywhere he is in chains today."
                                                                                   Mohan has drunk all the milk. (there is no
      Simple Past is used instead of the Simple Future Tense,
                                                                                   milk in the port)
in clauses of time and of condition.
                                                                     (iv) To denote an action beginning at some time in the
      For example,
                                                                            past and continuing upto the present moment.
                  I shall sing till you sleep.
                  If it rings, I shall pick up the receiver.           For example,
(2) Present Continuous Tense                                                       I have known him for a long time.
The Present Continuous Tense is used :                                             He has been ill since last week.
    (i)    For an action going on at the time of speaking.                         We have lived here for five years.
      For example,                                               (4) Present Perfect Continuous Tense
                  He is reading.                                 The Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used for an ac-
                  The boys are playing cricket.                  tion which began at some time in the past and is still con-
     (ii) For a temporary action which may not be actually       tinuing.
           happening at the time of speaking.                    For example,
      For example,                                                     I have been watering the plants since 5 o" clock.
                  I am reading "Romeo Juliet".
                                                                       He has been fishing for two hours.
                  He is reading "Illyus and the Oddyssey".
                                                                      They have been playing for several hours.