AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Until you labour you cannot pass. — Wrong TENSE
Unless you labour you cannot pass. — Correct
Tense is that form of a Verb which shows the time and
Until he does not come I shall wait for him.
state of an action and an event. [Tense comes from Latin
tempus, meaning time.]
Until he comes I shall wait for him. — Correct
13. Scarcely, hardly, and barely are followed by when. Let us take three sentences.
After scarcely, hardly etc. we use helping first then 1. I sing this song to please you.
subject. 2. I sang the song in her very presence.
For example, 3. I shall sing another song for her tomorrow.
Hardly had he gone out than he reached. — Wrong In the first sentence, the Verb sing refers to present time.
Hadly had he gone when he reached. — Correct In the second sentence, the Verb sang refers to past time.
Scarcely I had reached there when she went out. In the third sentence, the Verb shall sing refers to future
— Wrong time.
Scarcely had I reached there when she went out.
Thus, a Verb may refer to :
(i) Present time (ii) Past time
14. So and so that are used for cause and purpose. So
that cannot be used in negative. (iii) Future time
For example, (i) A Verb that refers to present time is said to be in the
He is ill so he wants to take rest. present tense.
Or, He is ill so that he wants to take rest. For example
But, I go. I run. I sleep. I write.
He is ill so that he cannot go there. — Wrong I walk.
He is ill so he cannot go there. — Correct (ii) A Verb that refers to past time is said to be in the
15. Nothing is followed by but. past tense.
For example, For example
Nothing can be said that is required. — Wrong I went I ran I slept I wrote I walked
Nothing can be said but is required. — Correct
(iii) a Verb that refers to future time is said to be in the
16. After these verbs : treat, regard, describe, present,
portray, define, depict, etc. we use as before noun.
Do not treat a servant a servant. — Wrong I shall go. I shall run.
Do not treat a servant as a servant. — Correct I shall sleep. I shall write.
She regards me her brother. — Wrong I shall walk.
She regards me as her brother. — Correct There are three main tenses :
17. Such is followed by as (1) The Present Tense (2) The Past Tense
For example, (3) The Future Tense
Such boys are good that believe in me. — Wrong Each of these three tenses has been sub-divided into
Such boys are good as believe in me. — Correct four forms under the following heading :
Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
(1) Simple Present/ (1) Simple Past/ (1) Simple Future/
Present Indefinite Tense Past Indefinite Tense Future Indefinite Tense
(2) Present Continuous Tense (2) Past Continuous Tense (2) Future Continuous Tense
(3) Present Perfect Tense (3) Past Perfect Tense (3) Future Perfect Tense
(4) Present Perfect Continuous (4) Past Perfect Continuous Tense (4) Future Perfect Continuous
TABLE OF TENSES OF VERB TO GIVE
Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect
Present Active I give. I am giving. I have given. I have been giving.
Passitve I am given. I am being given. I have been given.
Past Active I gave. I was giving. I had given. I had been giving.
Passive I was given. I was being given. I had been given.
Future Active I shall give. I shall be giving. I shall have given. I shall been giving.
Passive I shall be given. I shall have been given.