AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
73. Complain of/about something. Therefore,
74. Conceal facts from somebody. A conjunction that joins two words or two co-ordinate
75. Concede to some demand. clauses or sentences is called a Co-ordinating Conjunc-
76. Concur with a person. tion.
77. Concur in an opinion. Let us take an example,
78. Condemn a person to death. Smith is honest though poor.
79. Conform to a norm.
(Smith is honest though he is poor).
80. Conform with one’s opinion.
Here he is poor is a subordinate clause dependent for
81. Congratulate somebody on his success.
its full meaning on the main clause Smith is honest to which
82. Consult with (discuss with) one’s friends. it is joined by the conjunction though.
83. Consult a person/a lawyer/a map/a dictionary (take
Though is a Subordinating conjunction. All clauses in-
advice, get information etc.)
troduced by Subordinating conjunctions are Subordinate
84. Contribute to a fund. clauses.
85. Converse with a person about a thing.
86. Cope with situation.
A conjunction that joins a Dependent or Subordinate
87. Correspond with a person (write).
clause to the main or co-ordinate clause of a complex sen-
88. Correspond to something (agree). tence, is called a Subordinating Conjunction.
89. Cure a man of a disease. List of Subordinating Conjunctions :
90. Cure (n/u) for a disease. After Although
CONJUNCTION If Least
A Conjunction is a word which joins together sen-
tences and sometimes words.
Meenu and Rishi are good friends.
̄ Co-ordinate conjunctions are of four different kinds :
Conjunction (i) Copulative or Cumulative Conjunctions only add some-
She must weep or she will die. thing to what has been already stated : also, and, as well,
̄ For example, further, too, well, now, no less than, not
only .... but also.
God made man and man made inventions.
We carried not a line and we raised not a stone.
̄ (ii) Adversative conjunctions contrast one idea to an-
Conjunction other : but, however, nevertheless, whereFor example,
Our boat is small but the sea is great. while, only, still and yet are all adversative conjunctions.
̄ For example,
Conjunction Our hoards are little but our hearts are great.
Conjunctions are of two kinds. : (iii) Alternative Conjunctions offer a choice between two
thoughts : or, nor, either ... or, neither ... nor, otherwise
(i) Co-ordinating etc.
(ii) Sub-ordinating For example,
For example, Do or die.
Shelly and Keats were great poets. Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
John and Henry are brothers. Speak out the truth, else (otherwise) you will suffer.
In these sentences, the conjunction and joins two (iv) Illative conjunctions expresses a relation of cause
words. and effect between the clauses joined by them : for, there-
Again, fore, them, so, etc.
John came here and sat down. For example,
Smith is poor but honest. We must go now; for it is already late.
Here, the conjunction and joins two Independent or Subordinating Conjunctions are of the following kinds :
co-ordinate clauses or sentences (John came here + John (i) Those denoting apposition : that
sat down), while the conjunction but joins two similar For example,
clauses or sentences (smith is poor + Smith is honest). John gave me his word that he would help me.
And and but are both co-ordinating conjunctions. All
(ii) Those denoting cause : since, For example, because,
clauses joined by and, but, or and nor are co-ordinate