AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
(3) Agency, instrumentality Since and From
For example, Both Since and from are used before a point of time
Sell goods at auction. Sent the parcel by post. but since is preceded by a verb in the perfect tense, while
Was stunned by a blow. Was destroyed by fire. from can be used with any tense.
Heard is through a friend. Cut it with a knife. For example,
(4) Manner John has started rowing from
For example, (or since) Monday Last.
Dying by inches. Fought with courage. John started rowing from yesterday
Worked with enthusiasm. Won with ease. (Not since).
(5) Cause, Reason, Purpose John starts rowing from today (not since).
For example, John will start rowing from tomorrow.
Laboured for the good of humanity. (Not since)
Died of fever. The very place for a picnic. Before, By and Within
Did it for our good. Suffers from pain. Before, and by are used with a point of time, while
Died from fatigue. Does it from perversity. within is used with a period of time.
Reached through fear of an ambush. For example,
Concealed it through shame. You must reach here before (or by) 8 o" clock.
Lost his purse through negligence.
Shivers with fever. Took medicine for cold.
Henry came back within an hour (not before).
Note : There is a distinction in use between before
There was no money by him.
By means not after the specified limit or time while
The church of Bethlehem.
before means any time within specified limit of time.
A man of means.
The boy with grey hair.
You must come back by 5 p.m. (not after 5 p.m.)
(7) Measure, Standard, Rate, Value
You must come back before 5 p.m. (any time before
the clock strikes five)
He charges interest at nine p.c.
In and Within
Stories like these must be taken at what they are
worth. In means at the end of, while within means before the
Cloth is sold by the meter.
I am taller than you by five inches.
The game will end within in an hour (before the hour
It was one by the tower-clock.
(8) Contrast, Concession
The game will end in an hour (at the end of, and not ex-
ceeding an hour).
After every effort, he failed.
In and Into
For one enemy he has a hundred friends.
In refers to a position already inside anything and into
For all his wealth he is not content. refers to a movement towards the inside of anything.
With all his faults, I adore him.
(9) Inference, Motive, Source or Origin
John was in the garden.
Mary went into in garden.
From what I know of him, I hesitate to trust him.
In and At
The knights were brave from gallantry of spirit.
In refers to a much wider space or time than at.
He did it from gratitude.
For example,Come at 8 o" clock in the morning.
Light emanates from the sun.
The Taj is at Agra in India.
From labour health, from contentment springs.
In and After
This is quotation from Shakespeare.
His skill comes from practice. In is used about the future time, while after is used
about the past.
SOME IMPORTANT PREPOSITIONS For example,
Since and For Fred will come in a few minutes (not after).
Since is used before a point of time, while for is used Arthur left after an hour (not in).
before a period of time. On and At
For example, On is used before a particular date or day and at be-
Monica has been here since Monday last. fore a particular hour.
I did not see you for a long time.