AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
You left much earlier than usual. (c) From now :
I am much surprised at his conduct. For example,
(iii) Both much and very are used with the Superlative I saw him long since.
Degree of Adjectives but the article is placed before very * Since, as a conjunction, means from which time and
and after much. is used after a noun or a phrase denoting a period of time
For example, and not a a point of time.
Kiran is the very best boy of his class. For example,
Jahar is much the best boy of his class. It is now five years since I visited the Taj.
5. VERY MUCH : TOO MUCH : MUCH TOO A year has gone by since he left us.
(i) Very much means enough and is used before Ad- * Again, Since as a preposition, means from and is
jectives and Participles. used after a verb in the Present or Past Perfect Tense and
For example, before a noun or a phrase denoting a point of time.
I am very much sorry for you. For example,
I am very much obliged to you. I has been absent since Frinday last.
(ii) Too much qualifies Nouns while much too quali- I had been suffering since the 09th of December
fies Adjectives. last.
For example, 9. BEFORE
Mr. Dutta gave you too much indulgence. (a)As an adverb, Before means on a former occasion.
The weather is too much cloudy. For example,
6. ONLY I remember to have seen you before.
The following sentences show that the meaning of a (b) As a preposition, before is used with a noun or a
sentence varies according to the placing of the Adverb. phrase denoting a point of time and never a period of time.
I have only taken tea (and done nothing more). For example,
I have taken tea only (no other thing). You must come back by 5 P.M.
I only have taken tea (and none else). I shall join you before your departure.
I have only a son (and no other child). (c) As a conjunction, Before introduces an adverbial
I have a son only (and no daughter). clause of time if the verb in the Principal clause is in the
Tom only agreed to accept this offer. Future Tense.
(and did nothing). For example,
Tom agreed only to accept this offer. I shall reach home before it is too late.
(and not to do anything else). 10. LITTLE AND A LITTLE
Tom agreed to accept this offer only. Little, as an adverb, is used in a negative sense to
(and no other offer) mean almost not.
Tom agreed to accept only this offer. For example,
(and nothing else). He cared little for his future.
Only too means very. [i.e., He did not care for his future].
For example, A little is used in an affirmative sense to mean slightly
I am only too glad to meet you (very glad). or somewhat.
7. ENOUGH For example,
Enough means just the opposite of too. While too We felt a little disturbed.
means beyond proper limit, enough means that the proper ̄
limit has been reached and not exceeded. Slightly
For example, or
Any pen is good enough for me. Somewhat
[i.e., is as good as I wish it to be]
We walked far enough today.
[i.e., as far as it was proper for us] PREPOSITION
* Enough is sometimes used in the sense of very.
A Preposition is a word placed before a Noun or a
Pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing
I was bad enough to wait so long.
denoted by it in regard to something else.
Since as an Adverb is used in the following senses :
(a) From then up to now : There is someone in the room.
For example, ̄
I saw the Taj five years ago and have remem- Preposition
bered it ever since. She is fond of honey
They said that they had been careful ever since.
(b) Between then and now :
For example, Preposition
He left last year and has never written to me The horse jumped off the wall.
He resigned his post and has remained unem- Preposition