AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
soil - soil ed (d) prevail - prevailed (d) Shake : The lion shook his It has shaken my
ratain - retained (d) loot - looted (d) mane. faith.
clean - cleaned (d) join - joined (d) Shoe : Who shot my horse? I have shod it.
scream - screamed (d) Shoot : He shot at the tiger. The tiger was shot
(iv) -ed pronounced d, t, id : Weak Verbs ending in more dead.
than one consonant add -ed in the Past Tense and Shrink : He shrank from the The linen has shrunk.
Past Participle. scene.
For example, Sing : She sang so sweetly. Often have I sung your
call - called (d) climb - climed (d)
Sink : The boat sank. He has sunk a tube-
arm - armed (d) push - pushed (d)
well in his compound.
touch - touched (d) lift - lifted (d) Sit : I sat down to read. He has set for the test.
Past Tense and Past Participle Slay : He slew his rival. The soldier was slain
Past Tense Past Participle in battle.
Bear : He bore the song in his She has borne twins. Sleep : I slept soundly. He has slept long.
memory. Sow : he sowed many seeds. He must reap what he
Beat : He beat his opponents. They have beaten him. has sown.
Begin : He began to weep. We have begun to Spend : He spent his time in I have spent my all.
Bid : He bade me go away. I was bidden to go. Spin : He span out a nice The top was spun by
Bind : We bound his hands. I was bound to do it. story. me.
Bite : A mad dog bit him. A snake his bitten him. Spread :The news spread We have spread this
Burst : He burst into tears. The bubble has burst. quickly. news.
Choose: We choose this book. They have chosen Spring : He sprang from a high You have sprung a sur
Cost : It cost him his life. It has cost me nothing. family. prise.
Deal : He dealt his rice. John has dealt him a Stand : He stood the test well. I have stood up for
Draw : He drew his sword. He has drawn a pic Steal : He stole my watch. He has stolen trash.
ture. Stick : He stuck at nothing. A bone has stuck in
Drink : We drank a cup of We were drunk with may gullet.
milk. joy. Sting : The remark stung He was stung by a
Drive : I drove a car. He has driven out his me. bee.
guest. Strike : He struck a blow on It has never struck
Eat : I ate a loaf. He has eaten rice. my face. me.
Fall : Sam fell ill. He has fallen foul of Strive : He strove hard to win. I have striven to beat
Feel : We felt a shock. he has felt for me Swear : he swore to help me. He was sworn to stop.
Find : We found him in. He was found a job. Swing : I swam across the Who has swum the
Forget : I forgot his name. I have not forgotten river. channel?
you. Take : I took rest here. He has taken my pen.
Freeze : The river frozen in Water is frozen by Tear : He tore the letter. I was torn to pieces.
winter. cold. Throw : He threw stones at me. He was thrown over
Get : I got a prize. I have got a headache. overboard.
Go : I went home. he has gone to law. Use : I used your pen. He is not used to hard
Grow : He grew angry. I have grown wiser. work.
Wear : His patience wore out He has worn a new
Hide : He hid his face from It was hidden in a box.
at last. coat.
Weave : He wave a sheet of The story was skilfully
Hurt : This hurt me much. I have hurt by let.
Know : I knew him. He was known to me.
Weep : She wept bitter tears. I have long wept to
Lead : Who let the boys? He has led his party you. see.
to victory. Past Participle forms like - bounden, clove, drunken,
Lose : I lost my keys. He has lost his job. gotten, graven, hewn, hidden, motten, shorn, shrunken,
Mean : He meant no harm. I was meant for this. stricken and sunken etc. are used as Adjectives only.
Ring : I rang him up on the Who has rung the bell? For example,
phone. Verbs Verbs used as Adjectives
Rise : They rose in arms. The sun has risen. Tom was bound to work. It is your bounden duty.
Run : He ran a race. I have run into debt. The rock was cleft in two. The cow has cloven feet.
Seek : He never sought Fortune has sought We were drunk with a Harold was found in a
honour. him new spirit. drunken state.
Send : I sent him to jail. I have sent for him. I have got a prize. I have ill-gotten wealth.
Set : I set my dog on him. He has set out on a He hid himself in a bush. John found a hidden trea-