soil - soil ed (d)         prevail - prevailed (d)    Shake : The lion shook his         It has shaken my
        ratain - retained (d)      loot - looted (d)                    mane.                    faith.
        clean - cleaned (d)        join - joined (d)           Shoe : Who shot my horse?         I have shod it.
        scream - screamed (d)                                 Shoot : He shot at the tiger.      The tiger was shot
   (iv) -ed pronounced d, t, id : Weak Verbs ending in more                                      dead.
        than one consonant add -ed in the Past Tense and      Shrink : He shrank from the        The linen has shrunk.
        Past Participle.                                                scene.
        For example,                                            Sing : She sang so sweetly.      Often have I sung your
        call - called (d)          climb - climed (d)
                                                                Sink : The boat sank.            He has sunk a tube-
        arm - armed (d)            push - pushed (d)
                                                                                                 well in his compound.
        touch - touched (d)        lift - lifted (d)              Sit : I sat down to read.      He has set for the test.
                Past Tense and Past Participle                  Slay : He slew his rival.        The soldier was slain
                Past Tense            Past Participle                                            in battle.
 Bear : He bore the song in his She has borne twins.          Sleep : I slept soundly.           He has slept long.
          memory.                                               Sow : he sowed many seeds. He must reap what he
 Beat : He beat his opponents. They have beaten him.                                             has sown.
Begin : He began to weep.           We have begun to          Spend : He spent his time in       I have spent my all.
                                    write.                              vain.
   Bid : He bade me go away.        I was bidden to go.         Spin : He span out a nice        The top was spun by
 Bind : We bound his hands.         I was bound to do it.               story.                   me.
  Bite : A mad dog bit him.         A snake his bitten him.   Spread :The news spread            We have spread this
Burst : He burst into tears.        The bubble has burst.               quickly.                 news.
Choose: We choose this book.        They have chosen          Spring : He sprang from a high You have sprung a sur
 Cost : It cost him his life.       It has cost me nothing.             family.                  prise.
 Deal : He dealt his rice.          John has dealt him a      Stand : He stood the test well. I have stood up for
                                    blow.                                                        truth.
Draw : He drew his sword.           He has drawn a pic         Steal : He stole my watch.        He has stolen trash.
                                    ture.                      Stick : He stuck at nothing.      A bone has stuck in
Drink : We drank a cup of           We were drunk with                                           may gullet.
          milk.                     joy.                       Sting : The remark stung          He was stung by a
Drive : I drove a car.              He has driven out his               me.                      bee.
                                    guest.                    Strike : He struck a blow on       It has never struck
   Eat : I ate a loaf.              He has eaten rice.                  my face.                 me.
  Fall : Sam fell ill.              He has fallen foul of     Strive : He strove hard to win. I have striven to beat
                                     me.                                                         him.
  Feel : We felt a shock.           he has felt for me        Swear : he swore to help me.       He was sworn to stop.
 Find : We found him in.            He was found a job.       Swing : I swam across the          Who has swum the
Forget : I forgot his name.         I have not forgotten                river.                   channel?
                                    you.                       Take : I took rest here.          He has taken my pen.
Freeze : The river frozen in        Water is frozen by          Tear : He tore the letter.       I was torn to pieces.
          winter.                   cold.                     Throw : He threw stones at me. He was thrown over
   Get : I got a prize.             I have got a headache.                                       overboard.
     Go : I went home.              he has gone to law.          Use : I used your pen.          He is not used to hard
Grow : He grew angry.               I have grown wiser.                                          work.
                                                               Wear : His patience wore out      He has worn a new
 Hide : He hid his face from        It was hidden in a box.
                                                                        at last.                 coat.
                                                              Weave : He wave a sheet of         The story was skilfully
 Hurt : This hurt me much.          I have hurt by let.
                                                                        cloth.                   woren.
Know : I knew him.                  He was known to me.
                                                              Weep : She wept bitter tears.      I have long wept to
 Lead : Who let the boys?           He has led his party                you.                     see.
                                    to victory.                    Past Participle forms like - bounden, clove, drunken,
 Lose : I lost my keys.             He has lost his job.      gotten, graven, hewn, hidden, motten, shorn, shrunken,
Mean : He meant no harm.            I was meant for this.     stricken and sunken etc. are used as Adjectives only.
 Ring : I rang him up on the        Who has rung the bell?         For example,
          phone.                                               Verbs                        Verbs used as Adjectives
  Rise : They rose in arms.         The sun has risen.         Tom was bound to work.       It is your bounden duty.
  Run : He ran a race.              I have run into debt.      The rock was cleft in two. The cow has cloven feet.
 Seek : He never sought             Fortune has sought         We were drunk with a         Harold was found in a
          honour.                   him                        new spirit.                  drunken state.
 Send : I sent him to jail.         I have sent for him.       I have got a prize.          I have ill-gotten wealth.
    Set : I set my dog on him.      He has set out on a        He hid himself in a bush.    John found a hidden trea-
                                    tour.                                                   sure.