Note : The Past Participle usually ends in -ed,-d,-t, -en, -n
        etc.                                                                           GERUND
     The participles are used as simple qualifying adjec-          A Gerund is that form of the Verb which ends in -ing
tives in front of a Noun and are thus called Participial      and has the force of a Noun and a Verb.
Adjectives.                                                        For example,
For example,                                                            Hunting deer is a favourite sport in India.
     A rolling stong gathers no moss.                                   I like writing poetry.
     He played a losing game.                                      In these sentences, the Gerund, like a Noun, is the
                                                              subject of a Verb, but like a Verb, it also takes an object,
     A burnt child dreads the fire.
                                                              thus, showing it has also the force of a Verb.
     He wears a worried look.                                      Again,
     Education is the most pressing need of our country.           He is fond of collecting stamps. In this sentence, the
     A lying witness ought to be punished.                    Gerund like a Noun as governed by a Preposition, but like
     Thus, we recall that :                                   a Verb, it also takes an object.
     (1) A Participle is a Verbal Adjective.                       Both the Gerund and the infinitive have the force of a
                                                              Noun and a Verb and also their usages are same. Thus, in
     (2) A Participle may govern a Noun or Pronoun, like a
                                                              many sentences, either of them may be used without any
                                                              special difference in meaning.
     (3) A Participle may be modified by an Adverb, like a         For example,
           Verb.                                                        To see is to beleive.
     (4) A Participle may qualify a Noun or Pronoun, like               Seeing is believing.
           an Adjective.                                                To give is better than to receive.
     (5) A participle may be compared, like an Adjective.               Giving is better than receiving.
                                                              Uses of Gerund
Forms Of Different Participles In Active and Passive
                                                                   The Gerund has the force of a Noun and a Verb. It is
                                                              thus a Verbal-Noun and may be used as :
          Active                      Passive                    (1) Subject of a Verb
     Present : caring          Present : being cared                 For example,
     Perfect : having cared Perfect : having been cared                 Seeing in believing
                               Past : cared                             Hunting deer is a favourite sport in India.
                                                                 (2) Object of a Transitive Verb
Uses of Participles
                                                                     For example,
   (1) The Continuous Tenses (Active Voice) are formed                  Stop talking.
        from the Present Participle with tenses of the Verb             Children love making noise.
        be.                                                             I like writing poetry.
        For example,                                             (3) Object of a Preposition.
           I am caring.                                              For example,
           I was caring.                                                I am tired of waiting.
                                                                        He is fond of fishing.
           I shall be caring
                                                                        He was punished for telling a lie.
   (2) The Perfect Tenses (Active Voice) are formed from         (4) Complement of a Verb.
        the Past Participle with tenses of the Verb have.            For example,
        For example,                                                    Writing is learning.
           I have cared.         I had cared.                           What I most dislike is smoking.
           I shall have cared.                                   (5) Absolutely.
                                                                     For example,
   (3) The Passive Voice is formed from the Past Participle
                                                                            Playing cards being his aversion, we did not
        with tenses of the Verb be.
                                                                            play bridge.
        For example,                                               Moreover, the Persent Participle has the force of an
           I am cared.           I was cared.                 Adjective and a Verb. It is called a Verbal Adjective.
           I shall be cared.                                       For example,
   (4) Participles that qualify Nouns or Pronouns may be               Walking along the road, he noticed a big elephant.
        used also as attributivel y, predicatively and                 Seeing, he believed.
                                                              Strong And Weak Verbs
        absolutely with a Noun or Pronoun going before.
                                                                   Verbs are divided into two kinds :
        For example,                                                   1. Weak Verbs             2. Strong Verbs
           A rollong stone gather no moss.                         Let us take a few verbs and see their past tense and
           A lost opportunity never returns.                  past participle.
           The man seems worried. (Modifying the subject).         For example,
           He kept me waiting. (Modifiying the object).         Verbs Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
           The sea being smooth, we went for sail.              play            play          played          played
           Jack having arrived, we were freed from anxiety.     like            like           liked           liked
                                                                learn          learn          learnt          learnt