AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Note : The Past Participle usually ends in -ed,-d,-t, -en, -n
The participles are used as simple qualifying adjec- A Gerund is that form of the Verb which ends in -ing
tives in front of a Noun and are thus called Participial and has the force of a Noun and a Verb.
Adjectives. For example,
For example, Hunting deer is a favourite sport in India.
A rolling stong gathers no moss. I like writing poetry.
He played a losing game. In these sentences, the Gerund, like a Noun, is the
subject of a Verb, but like a Verb, it also takes an object,
A burnt child dreads the fire.
thus, showing it has also the force of a Verb.
He wears a worried look. Again,
Education is the most pressing need of our country. He is fond of collecting stamps. In this sentence, the
A lying witness ought to be punished. Gerund like a Noun as governed by a Preposition, but like
Thus, we recall that : a Verb, it also takes an object.
(1) A Participle is a Verbal Adjective. Both the Gerund and the infinitive have the force of a
Noun and a Verb and also their usages are same. Thus, in
(2) A Participle may govern a Noun or Pronoun, like a
many sentences, either of them may be used without any
special difference in meaning.
(3) A Participle may be modified by an Adverb, like a For example,
Verb. To see is to beleive.
(4) A Participle may qualify a Noun or Pronoun, like Seeing is believing.
an Adjective. To give is better than to receive.
(5) A participle may be compared, like an Adjective. Giving is better than receiving.
Uses of Gerund
Forms Of Different Participles In Active and Passive
The Gerund has the force of a Noun and a Verb. It is
thus a Verbal-Noun and may be used as :
Active Passive (1) Subject of a Verb
Present : caring Present : being cared For example,
Perfect : having cared Perfect : having been cared Seeing in believing
Past : cared Hunting deer is a favourite sport in India.
(2) Object of a Transitive Verb
Uses of Participles
(1) The Continuous Tenses (Active Voice) are formed Stop talking.
from the Present Participle with tenses of the Verb Children love making noise.
be. I like writing poetry.
For example, (3) Object of a Preposition.
I am caring. For example,
I was caring. I am tired of waiting.
He is fond of fishing.
I shall be caring
He was punished for telling a lie.
(2) The Perfect Tenses (Active Voice) are formed from (4) Complement of a Verb.
the Past Participle with tenses of the Verb have. For example,
For example, Writing is learning.
I have cared. I had cared. What I most dislike is smoking.
I shall have cared. (5) Absolutely.
(3) The Passive Voice is formed from the Past Participle
Playing cards being his aversion, we did not
with tenses of the Verb be.
For example, Moreover, the Persent Participle has the force of an
I am cared. I was cared. Adjective and a Verb. It is called a Verbal Adjective.
I shall be cared. For example,
(4) Participles that qualify Nouns or Pronouns may be Walking along the road, he noticed a big elephant.
used also as attributivel y, predicatively and Seeing, he believed.
Strong And Weak Verbs
absolutely with a Noun or Pronoun going before.
Verbs are divided into two kinds :
For example, 1. Weak Verbs 2. Strong Verbs
A rollong stone gather no moss. Let us take a few verbs and see their past tense and
A lost opportunity never returns. past participle.
The man seems worried. (Modifying the subject). For example,
He kept me waiting. (Modifiying the object). Verbs Present Tense Past Tense Past Participle
The sea being smooth, we went for sail. play play played played
Jack having arrived, we were freed from anxiety. like like liked liked
learn learn learnt learnt