AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
The philosopher and critic is dead. 12. When a plural Noun comes between a singular
The captain and adjutant was present. subject and its Verb, the Verb is often wrongly made
3. If two subjects together express one idea, the Verb to agree with the nearest plural Noun instead of
remains in singular. with the real subject.
For example, For example,
The horse and carriage is at the door. Each of the brothers is clever.
Slow and steady wins the race. Each of the participantgs was given a prize.
4. If the singular subjects are preceded by each or Neither of the man was very tall.
every, the Verb usually is used in the singular form. A variety of pleasing objects charms the eye.
For example, The quality of the oranges was not good.
Every man, woman and children was lost. 13. The words joined to a singular subject by with,
Every father and mother was present at the together with, in addition to or as well as etc. are
meeting. parenthetical and therefore do not affect the number
5. Two or more singular subjects connected by or, nor, of the Verb.
either----or, neither----nor take a Verb in the singular. For example,
For example, The minister, with his loyals has arrived.
No nook or corner was left undiscovered. Sheena as well as Rose, deserves praise.
Neither he nor I was there. Justice, as well as mercy, allows it.
Neither blame nor praise seems to affect him. 14. The Verb to be takes the same case after it as before
6. When the subjects joined by or, nor are of different it.
numbers, the Verb must be plural, and the plural For example,
subject must be placed next to the Verb. He said to them, it is I and be not afraid.
For example, 15. When the subject of the Verb is a Relative Pronoun
Neither the Principal nor the teachers were care should be taken to see that the Verb agrees in
present. numbers and person with the antecedent of the
Either the girl or his parents have erred.
Neither Sushil nor his attendants were hurt.
She is one of the best mothers that have ever lived.
7. When the subjects joined by or, nor are of different
He, who is my friend, should stand by me.
Persons, the Verb agrees in Persons with the one
nearest to it. You, who are my brother, should not worry me.
For example, I, who am your your friend, will save you in danger.
Either he is mistaken or I am. PARTICIPLE
He is not to blame, nor are you.
8. When subjects differing in Number or Person, or A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of
both are connected by and, the Verb must always the nature both of a Verb and of an Adjective.
be in the plural. For example,
For example, Hearing the song, the girl woke up. Here, hearing
My mother and I have lived here for five years. qualifies the Noun girl as an Adjective does.
You and she are birds of the same feather. Therefore, learning partakes of the nature of both a
You and I have done our duties. Verb and an Adjective and is called participle.
9. A collective Noun takes a Singular Verb when the There are the two kinds of participle :
collection is thought of as a whole; a Plural Verb 1. Present Participle
when the individuals of which it is composed are 2. Past Participle
thought of. 1. Present Participles are those which end in-ing and
For example, represent an action as going on or incomplete or
The army was large. imperfect.
The army were given gurard of honour. For example,
Parliament has elected its speaker. We met a girl carrying a bunch of flowers.
The majority is against any compromise. The blind man, thinking all was safe, attempted to
10. Some nouns which are plural in form but singular cross the road.
in meaning, take a singular Verb. Lou dl y knocking at the door, he demanded
2. Past Participles are those forms of Verbs which
The news is true.
represents a completed action or state of the thing
The wages of sin is death.
Mathematics is a branch of study in every school.
11. Some nouns which are singular in form but plural
Deceived by his girl, he lost all hope.
in meaning, take a Plural Verb.
Time misspent is time lost.
We saw a few trees, ladden with fruit.
Ten dozen cost one hundred rupees.
Driven by hunder, he stole a piece of cake.
Twelve pair of socks cost ninety rupees.