AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES Mohan is worse than any other boy in our class.
(i) Many adjectives are formed from Nouns. Comparative
Noun Adjective Noun Adjective Mohan is the worst boy in our class.
Gold Golden Silk Silken —Superlative
Gift Gifted King Kingly Note : After the + superlative, no other and than any
Boy Boyish Dirt Dirty other, we use Singular Noun.
Fool Foolish Storm Stormy For example,
Care Careful Pardon Pardonable The best boys —wrong
Play Playful Laugh Laughable The best boy — correct
Hope Hopeful Venture Venturesome No other boys —wrong
Trouble Troublesome Outrage Outrageous No other boy —correct
Courage Courageous Glory Glorious Than any other boys —wrong
Shame Shameless/shameful Than any other boy —correct
Envy Envious Man Manly 2. Positive : very few...... as + P.F. + as + N
(ii) Some adjectives are formed from Verbs. Comparative : N + Aux. Verb + C. F + than most
Verb Adjective Verb Adjective other.....
Cease Ceaseless Talk Talkative Superlative : N + Aux. Verb + one of +the +S.F.......
Tire Tireless Move Moveable For example,
(iii) Some adjectives are formed from other Adjectives. Kolkata is one of the busiest cities of India.
Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective —Superlative
White Whitish Black Blackish Very few cities of India are as busy as Kolkata.
Sick Sickly Tragic Tragical —Positive
Whole Wholesome Three Threefold Kolkata is busier than most other cities of India.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (DEGREE) Note : There is no use of singular Noun after — one
of, very few and than most other.
Let us take a few sentences:
1. Sunil’s orange is sweet.
One of the best girl —wrong
2. Kavita’s orange is sweeter than Sunil"s.
Very few girl —wrong
3. Sanjay’s orange is the sweetest of all.
Than most other girl —wrong
In the first sentence, the Adjective sweet merely tells
us that Sunil"s orange has the quality of sweetness, without One of the best girls —correct
saying how much of this quality it has. Very few girls —correct
In the second sentence, the Adjective sweeter tells us Than most other girls —correct
that Kavita’s orange, compared with Sunil’s, has more of THE RULES OF DEGREES
the quality of sweetness.
1. After the following Latin adjectives we use ‘to’,
And, in the third sentence, the Adjective sweetest tells instead of than in comparative degree:
us that of all these oranges, Sanjay’s mango has the greatest superior, junior, senior, prior, interior, interior, minor
amount or highest degree of the quality of sweetness. etc.
Thus, we see that Adjectives change form (sweet, For example,
sweeter, sweetest) to show comparison. They are called
Ram is junior to me. —correct
the three Degrees of Comparison.
Nayna is senior to Meena. —correct
In order to know Adjectives at length, it is essential to
know the degrees of comparison. 2. There is no use of more or most before the follow-
There are three kinds of degree. ing Adjectives:
1. Positive Degree. Unique, universal, absolute, supreme, right, round,
2. Comparative Degree. square, perfect, changeable etc.
3. Superlative Degree. For example,
In the above sentences, sweet is in the Positive degree He is the unique person of my village. —correct
sweeter in Comparative degree and Sweetest is in the 3. There is no use of superlative degree for two.
Superlative degree. For example,
Structures Used for Making Positive, Comparative Soma is the more beautiful of the two.
and Superlative Degrees He is better of the two.
1. Positive : No other .... as + P.F + as + N. 4. ‘Much’ cannot be used before positive adjective.
Comparative : N + Aux. Verb + C.F. + than any other... For example,
Superlative : N + Aux. Verb + the + S.F....... Munna is a very intelligent boy.
For example, 5. No use of ‘very’ before Comparative Adjective.
No other boy in our class is as bad as Mohan. For example,
—Positive Rani is much better than Reena.