AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
For example, The books that you sent me are not good ones
Ram avoids of the chance — Wrong. (=books).
Ram avoids himself of the chance. (6) Such is a Demonstrative Pronoun when it is used as
— Correct. a substitute for a Noun.
Yukta prides on her beauty. — Wrong For example,
Yukta prides herself on beauty — Correct I am a party to this case and as such (=a
party) I cannot help you.
3. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 4. RELATIVE PRONOUN
A Pronoun that points out (demonstrates) some Nouns A Relative Pronoun is one which relates to (refers to)
instead of which it is used, is called a Demonstrative some other Noun or Pronoun, called its antecedent, and
which has the force of Conjunction.
[The Noun or Pronoun for which the Relative Pronoun
(1) This and that are used for Singular Nouns while these
stands, is called its antecedent]
and those are used for Plural Nouns.
I met a man. He gave me a letter.
The people of India are poorer than that of
England. — Wrong. I met the man who gave me a letter.
The people of India are poorer than those John read the book. It was lent to him.
John read the book which was lent to him.
The pen is lost. You gave me the pen.
Plural Noun those.
The pen that you gave me is lost.
of England. — Correct
Each of these three little words, who, which and that
The flower of India is sweeter than those of is really two parts of speech in one. Each stands for a
Italy. — wrong. Noun and at the same time, joins two sentences together
The flower of India is sweeter than that of like a conjunction. In other words, it does at once the
̄ ̄ work of a Pronoun and that of a Conjunction.
Singular Noun that Uses of Relative Pronoun
Italy. — Correct. (1) Who and whom are used for mankind in Nominative
(2) These and those should not be used before kind of and in Accusative Cases positively.
and sort of. For example,
For example, These are the boys who help me.
These kind of people are poor. — Wrong. She is the girl who teaches me.
This kind of people are poor. — Correct Meena is the girl whom I love.
Those sort of people are rich. — Wrong They are the students whom I teach.
That sort of people are rich. — Correct (2) Whose is used for all in Possessive Case.
But, For example,
These kinds of pens are costly.— Crorect He is the boy whose name is Raju.
Those sorts of books are useful.— Correct This is the table whose colour is blue.
This is the animal whose tail is long.
(3) When two nouns have been mentioned in a clause or
sentence going before, this is a substitute for the (3) Which is used for all except mankind.
latter and that for the former. For example,
For example, This is the bird which can fly.
Both health and wealth are necessary i.e., this This is the animal which gives us milk.
(wealth) gives us opportunities; and that (health) This is the music system which is costly.
gives us energy for work. (4) That is used after all, none, some etc.
(4) This or that is also used as a substitute for a clause For example,
or a sentence going before. All that glitters is not gold.
For example, None that has come is honest.
You neglect your studies and this is bad of Some that are fancy items are sold.
you. (5) Everything and anything are followed by that.
Johny never cared for his health and that For example,
rained him. I replied everything that was asked.
(5) One and its plural form ones are Demonstrative He can do anything that is required.
Pronouns when they are used as substitutes for (6) We use only that if Noun is not used after Superlative
For example, For example,
I lost my pen, but I have got one (=a pen) This is the best what I can do. — Wrong.
from my father. This is the best that I can do. — Correct