AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
King Queen Gentleman Lady School-master School-mistress
Sir Madam Son Daughter Washer-man Washer-woman
Clock Hen Boar Sow Step-son Step-daughter
Stag Hind Swan Nymph Buck-rabbit Doe-rabbit
Widower Widow Fox Vixen
Bachelor Maid, Spinster
Horse (or Stallion) Mare He-bear She-bear
Hart Roe Ram Ewe Great-uncle Great-aunt
Wizard Witch Gander Goose Note : 1. Some Masculine Nouns are used in the Com-
Earl Countess Drone Bee mon Gender.
Drake Duck Bullock Heifer For example,
Colt Filly Buck Doe Actor, Advocate, Author, Chairman, Doctor, Hound,
Dog (or Hound) Bitch Bull (or Ox) Cow Lawyer, Man, Painter, Poet, Teacher, Tutor, Hunter
Monk (or Frian) Nun Bride groom Bride 2. Some Feminine Nouns are used in the Common Gen-
Lad Lass der.
(2) By adding a syllable (—ess, —ine, —trix, —a, etc.) For example,
Cow, Duck, Bee
Masuline Feminine Masuline Feminine
3. Some Feminine Nouns have no corresponding Mas-
Lion Lioness Heir Heiress
Host Hostess Poet Poetess
Priest Priestess Mayor Mayoress For example,
Patron Patroness Peer Peeress House-wife (mistress of the house)
Benefactor Benefactress Conductor Conductress Virgin (an unmarried woman)
Negro Negress Enchanter Enchantress Flirt (woman pretending to make love)
Instructor Instructress Founder Foundress Virago (a turbulent woman)
Waiter Waitress Traitor Traitress Dowager (widow with late husband"s property)
Seamster Seamstress Templer Temptress Siren (an enticing woman)
Songster Songstress Preceptor Preceptress
Brunette (a dark-complexioned woman)
Murderer Murderess Sorcerer Sorceress
Prude (a woman of a affected modestry)
(3) By substituting a feminine word for a masculine in com-
pound words. 4. Some Masculines have no corresponding Feminines.
For example, For example,
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Captain, Judge, Knight, Squire, Parson
Peacock Peahen Grandfather Grandmother
Billy-goat Nanny-goat Cock-sparrow Hen-sparrow PRONOUN
Foster -father Foster -mother
Jack-ass Jenny-ass Czar Czarina Pronoun is the word that is used for a Noun. Pronoun
Viceroy Vicereine Testator Testatrix makes our language stylistic and saves us from repeating
Executor Executrix Prophet Prophetess the same Noun. [Pronoun actually means For-a-Noun].
Shepherd ShepherdessSteward Stewardess For example,
Viscount Viscountess Manager Manageress Ashi is absent, because Ashi is ill.
Jew Jewess Baron Baroness But, we can say :
Author Authoress Signor Signora Ashi is absent because she is ill.
Count Countess Giant Giantess
Don Donna Hero Heroine ̄
Signor Signora Sultan Sultana Pronoun
KINDS OF PRONOUN
Again, —ess is added after dropping the vowel of
the masculine ending. Pronouns are of nine kinds :
For example, 1. Personal Pronoun.
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine 2. Reflexive Pronoun.
Abbot Abbess Duke Cuchess 3. Demonstrative Pronoun.
Emperor Empress Actor Actress 4. Relative Pronoun.
Hunter Huntress Master Mistress 5. Interrogative Pronoun.
Marquis Marchioness Prince Princess 6. Possessive Pronoun.
Tiger Tigress Votary Votaress 7. Reciprocal Pronoun.
He-ass She-ass Land-lord Land-lady 8. Universal Pronoun.
Man-servant Maid-servant Milk-man Milk-maid 9. Pronouns denoting number or amount.