AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Kareena"s husband is more handsome than
Karishma. — wrong GENDER
Kareena"s husband is more handsome than
What is gender ?
Karishma"s. — correct
In grammar, there is a classification of a Noun or Pro-
Rohan"s brother is more intelligent than Mohan.
noun as Masculine or Feminine. Therefore, gender is the
—wrong sexual classification in grammar. Gender comes from Latin
Rohan"s brother is more intelligent than Mohan"s. genus, meaning kind or sort.
—correct We know that living beings are either the male or the
5. If possessive is used before as it should also be female sex.
used after as. A B A B
For example, Boy Girl Tiger Tigress
Dolly"s sister is as beautiful as Sony. Actor Actress Man Woman
—wrong Hero Heroine Cock Hen
Dolly"s sister is as beautiful as Sony"s. Lion Lioness Brother Sister
—correct The words in the first column under A are the names
6. If two Nouns are closely related, we are to use of all male animals.
possessive with the last Noun. And, the words in the second column under B are the
For example, names of all female animals.
Kapoor and son"s shop. A noun that denotes a male animal is said to be of the
Choudhury and grand son"s shop. Masculine Gender.
But, A noun that denotes a female animal is said to be of
Keats" and Shelley"s poems. the Feminine Gender.
Smith"s and Adam"s definations. Besides, Masculine Gender and Feminine Gender, there
is a gender which is said to be the Common Gender. In
[These two nouns are not closely related.]
this gender, a noun that denotes either a male or a female
7. If there is too much sound of hiss, ses, sus etc., of
the last syllable of a noun, we use only (’).
parent, child, pupil, servant, friend, thief, relation,
Moses" death, Jesus" love,Consciences" sake, enemy, cousin, orphan, student, person, baby,
For justices" sake, For goodness" sake. guardian, monarch, infant, neighbour, tutor etc.
8. Possessive is also used with some personified A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor
phrases. female is said to be of Neuter Gender.
For example, [Neuter means neither, i.e. neither male nor female.]
At death"s door, Fortune"s favour,The s oul"s For example,
prayer, God"s mercy, India"s heroes, Nature"s laws, Book, pen, table, chair, room, wall, tree, paper, ball,
At duty"s call. sword, radio, telephone, bag, cloth, cigarette, music,
9. The Possessive can also be used to show — time, key, bus, auto, motor, song etc.
distance, weight, edge etc. Masculine Gender is often applied to objects remark-
For example, able for strength, violence, sublimity and superiority.
A week"s leave. A mule"s distance. For example,
A kilo"s weight. A bat"s edge. Death, time, winter, summer, the sun, fear, love etc.
A day"s match. A stone"s throw. Feminine Gender is often applied to objects
In a year"s time. remarkable for beauty, gentleness gracefulness,
A foot"s length. A month"s holiday. fertility, softness, sweetness and weakness etc.
10. Possessive can too be used to indicate — school, For example,
shop, clinic, church, house, college, hospital, theatre The moon, the earth, spring, liberty, autumn, nature,
etc. charity, church, hope, justice, mercy, peace, religion,
For example, spring, truth, viture, names of countries, locomotive
Sonia reads in St.Columbu’s. engines, cars, ships and of arts and sciences.
[in St.Columbus school] FORMATION OF FEMININE NOUNS FROM
Kamia went to barber"s. [the shop of barber]
There are three ways of forming the feminine from the
Kavita went to doctor"s. [the clinic of doctor]
To-night I dine at my uncle"s. [house of uncle]
(1) By using a different word.
Anand was educated at Xavier"s. [Xavier school)
11. The following phrases are also commonly used.
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
For example, Father Mother Brother Sister
A boat"s crew. At his wit"s end. Husband Wife Boy Girl
At his finger"s end. For mercy"s sake. Uncle Aunt Pappa Mamma
To his heart"s content. Nephew Niece Man Woman