AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
     Rule 15 : Some —um ending Latin nouns take only —               Index              Indexes : tables of contents to books
s in plural form.                                                                       Indices : signs used in algebra
     Singular        Plural           Singular    Plural             Penny              Pennies : number of coins.
     Harmonium Harmoniums Quorum                  Quorums                               Pence : amount in value
     Forum           Forums           Premium     Premiums           Rule 20 : Some nouns have one meaning in the singu-
     Pendulum        Pendulums                                  lar and more than one in the plural.
     Stadium         Stadiums                                    Singular                  Plural
     Rule 16 : Noun + Proposition + the same noun remain         Colour : hue              Colours : 1. hues
always singular in use.                                                                                2. the flag of a regi-
     For example,                                                                                         ment.
          Village after village                        —correct  Custom : habit            Customs : 1. habits
          Match after match                            —correct                                        2. duties levied on
          Row upon row                                 —correct                                           imports.
          Word for word.                               —correct  Effect : result           Effects : 1. results
     But,                                                                                              2. property
          Villages after villages                       —wrong   Manner : method           Manners : 1. methods
          Matches after matches                         —wrong                                         2. correct behaviour
          Rows upon rows                                —wrong   Moral : a moral           Morals : 1. moral lessons
          Word for words                                —wrong
                                                                            lesson                     2. conduct
     Rule 17 : The digits, verbs, pronouns and abbrevia-
                                                                 Number : a quantity Numbers: 1. quantities
tions take their plural form in the following ways :
                                                                                                       2. verses
     Singular                       Plural
                                                                 Pain : suffering          Pains :     1. sufferings
     70                             70"s
                                                                                                       2. care, exertion
     21                             21"s
     shall                          shall"s                      Premise : proposition Premises :1. propositions
     will                           will"s                                                             2. buildings.
     if                             if"s                         Quarter : fourth part Quarters :1. fourth part.
     what                           what"s                                                             2. lodgings
     who                            who"s                        Spectacle : a sight       Spectacles:1. sights.
     M.A.                           M.A.s [not M.A."s]                                                 2. eye-glasses
     B.A.                           B.A.s [not B.A."s]           Letter : 1. letter of the Letters : 1. letters of the
     M.L.A.                         M.L.A.s [not M.L.A."s]                  alphabet                      alphabet
     Rule 18 : Some nouns have two meanings in the sin-                      2. epistle                2. epistles
gular but only one in plural.                                                                          3. literature
             Singular                       Plural               Ground : 1. earth         Grounds : 1. enclosed land
Light       1. radiance                     Lights : Lamps                    2. reason                   attached to house
             2. a lamp                                                                                 2. reasons
Practice 1. habit                           Practices : habits                                         3. dregs
             2. exercise of a profession                             Rule 21 : Some nouns change their meaning when we
Powder      1. dust                         Powders : doses     make them plural.
            2. a dose of medicine           of medicine         Singular                      Plural
                in fine grains like dust                        Air : atmosphere               Airs : affected manners
People      1. nation                       Peoples : nations   Alphabet : letter              Alphabets : longuages
            2. men and women                                    Advice : counsel               Advices : information
     Rule 19 : Some nouns have two forms for the plural,        Abuse : bad language           Abuses : languages
each with a somewhat different meaning.                         Compass : extent, range        Compasses : an instrument for
     Singular            Plural                                                                drawing circles
     Brother             Brothers : sons of the same parent     Force : strength               Forces : military forces
                         Brethren : members of a society of a   Good : benefit, well-being Goods : merchandise
                         community.                             Physic : medicine              Physics : natural science
     Cloth               Cloths : kinds or pieces of cloth.     Practice : habit               Practices : traditions
                         Clothes : garments.                    Iron : a kind of metal         Irons : fetters
     Die                 Dies : stamps for coining.             Light : radiant                Lights : lamps
                         Dice : small cubes used in games.      Respect : regard               Respects : compliments
     Fish                Fishes : taken separately.             Work : duty                    Words : creations
                         Fish : collectively                         Rule 22 : (a) Abstract Nouns have no plural.
     Genius              Geniuses : persons of great talent          For example,
                         Genii : spirits                               Hope, charity, love, kindness, happiness, hatred
                                                                       etc.
                                                             SEE–21