AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH GRAMMAR & LANGUAGE
Singular Plural Singular Plural The politics of our state are dirty.
Swine Swine Sheep Sheep ̄
Deer Deer Trout Trout particularised
Salmon Salmon Pair Pair ̄
Dozen Dozen Score Score plural number
Gross Gross Stone (unit) Stone The summons was issued by the magistrate.
Hundredweight singular number
Hundred Hundred Rule 11 : The following nouns are always used in
Thousand Thousand singular number.
For example : For example,
Twenty hundredweight1, make one ton. Scenery, machinery, p oetry, stationery, sultry,
The boy gave me five hundred2 rupees. (When used jewellery, crockery, luggage, baggage, breakage, haltage,
after numerals) percentage, knowledge, postage, wastage, furniture, in-
The car cost me eighty thoudand3 rupees. (When used formation, traffic, coffee, dust etc.
after numerals) Rule 12 : Certain Collective Nouns, though singular in
Rule 9 : There are some nouns which are only used in form, are always used as plurals.
the plural. For example,
(a) Names of instruments which have two parts forming Poultry, cattle, vermin, people, gentry etc.
a kind of pair. Rule 13 : In Compound Nouns, we make their plural
For example, forms only by adding —s to the main word.
Ballows, spectacles, scissors, tongs, pincers etc. Singular Plural
(b) Names of certain articles of dress. Father-in-law Fathers-in-law
For example, Daughter-in-law Daughters-in-law
Trousers, breeches, drawers etc. Mother-in-law Mothers-in-law
(c) Names of diseases Commander-in-chief Commanders-in-chief
Measles, mumps etc.
(d) Names of games.
Draughts, billiards etc.
(e) Certain other nouns. Now, look at these examples :
For example, Singular Plural
Annals, thanks, proceeds (of a sale), tidings, Man killer Man killers
environs, nuptials, obsequies, assets, chattels, odds, Chief Minister Chief Ministers
amends, seals, shambles, vegetables, troops, Woman hater Woman haters
particulars, aborigins, alms, ashes, arrears, dregs, Cupful Cupfuls
eaves, earnings, sweepings, etc.
Rule 10 : There are some plural forms of nouns which Drawback Draw backs
are actually singular.
Rule 14 : Nouns borrowed from other languages in
For example, English have their special rules to change them into plu-
Innings, mathematics, news, civics, politics, physics, ral.
ethics, economics, mechanics, summons etc. Singular Plural Singular Plural
For example, Datum Data Ditum Dita
Mathematics is an easy subject. Erratum Errata Bacterium Bacteria
(Mathematics is singular number) Referendum Referenda Momorandum Memoranda
If plural looking subjects are particularised or pos- Agendum Agenda Medium Media
sessed, they become as plural nouns. Sanatorium Sanatoria Criterion Criteria
My Mathematics are strong. Phenomenon Phenomena Oasis Oases
̄ Thesis Theses Hypothesis Hypotheses
Possessed Analysis Analyses Crisis Crises
̄ Index Indice/Indices
Plural number Apparatus Apparatus Series Series
Innings Innings Species Species