Singular      Plural         Singular       Plural             The politics of our state are dirty.
     Swine         Swine          Sheep          Sheep                      ̄
     Deer          Deer           Trout          Trout              particularised
     Salmon        Salmon         Pair           Pair                       ̄
     Dozen         Dozen          Score          Score              plural number
     Gross         Gross          Stone (unit)   Stone              The summons was issued by the magistrate.
     Hundredweight                                                          ̄
     Hundredweight                                                  singular number
     Hundred       Hundred                                          Rule 11 : The following nouns are always used in
     Thousand      Thousand                                    singular number.
     For example :                                                  For example,
     Twenty hundredweight1, make one ton.                           Scenery, machinery, p oetry, stationery, sultry,
     The boy gave me five hundred2 rupees. (When used          jewellery, crockery, luggage, baggage, breakage, haltage,
after numerals)                                                percentage, knowledge, postage, wastage, furniture, in-
     The car cost me eighty thoudand3 rupees. (When used       formation, traffic, coffee, dust etc.
after numerals)                                                     Rule 12 : Certain Collective Nouns, though singular in
     Rule 9 : There are some nouns which are only used in      form, are always used as plurals.
the plural.                                                         For example,
   (a) Names of instruments which have two parts forming            Poultry, cattle, vermin, people, gentry etc.
        a kind of pair.                                             Rule 13 : In Compound Nouns, we make their plural
        For example,                                           forms only by adding —s to the main word.
        Ballows, spectacles, scissors, tongs, pincers etc.          Singular                   Plural
   (b) Names of certain articles of dress.                          Father-in-law              Fathers-in-law
        For example,                                                Daughter-in-law            Daughters-in-law
        Trousers, breeches, drawers etc.                            Mother-in-law              Mothers-in-law
   (c) Names of diseases                                            Commander-in-chief         Commanders-in-chief
                                                                    Step-daughter              step-daughters
        For example,
                                                                    Maid-servant               Maid-servants
        Measles, mumps etc.
                                                                    Looker-on                  Lookers-on
   (d) Names of games.
                                                                    Passer-by                  Passers-by
        For example,
                                                                    Man-of-war                 Men-of-war
        Draughts, billiards etc.
                                                                    Coat-of-mill               Coats-of-mill
   (e) Certain other nouns.                                         Now, look at these examples :
        For example,                                                Singular                   Plural
        Annals, thanks, proceeds (of a sale), tidings,              Man killer                 Man killers
        environs, nuptials, obsequies, assets, chattels, odds,      Chief Minister             Chief Ministers
        amends, seals, shambles, vegetables, troops,                Woman hater                Woman haters
        particulars, aborigins, alms, ashes, arrears, dregs,        Cupful                     Cupfuls
        eaves, earnings, sweepings, etc.
                                                                    Handful                    Handfuls
     Rule 10 : There are some plural forms of nouns which           Drawback                   Draw backs
are actually singular.
                                                                    Rule 14 : Nouns borrowed from other languages in
     For example,                                              English have their special rules to change them into plu-
     Innings, mathematics, news, civics, politics, physics,    ral.
ethics, economics, mechanics, summons etc.                         Singular       Plural       Singular        Plural
     For example,                                                  Datum          Data         Ditum           Dita
     Mathematics is an easy subject.                               Erratum        Errata       Bacterium       Bacteria
                          (Mathematics is singular number)         Referendum Referenda Momorandum Memoranda
     If plural looking subjects are particularised or pos-         Agendum        Agenda       Medium          Media
sessed, they become as plural nouns.                               Sanatorium Sanatoria        Criterion       Criteria
     My Mathematics are strong.                                    Phenomenon Phenomena Oasis                  Oases
             ̄                                                      Thesis         Theses       Hypothesis      Hypotheses
          Possessed                                                Analysis       Analyses     Crisis          Crises
             ̄                                                      Index          Indice/Indices
        Plural number                                              Apparatus      Apparatus Series             Series
                                                                   Innings        Innings      Species         Species