Rule 3 : If there are double vowels to the end of a
                          NUMBER                            noun, put only —s to the end of that noun for plural.
                                                                Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
      There are two kinds of Number :
                                                                Radio           Radios         Ratio        Ratios
           (a) Singular, (b) Plural
                                                                Studio          Studios        Portfolio    Portfolios
      A noun that denotes one person or thing is said to be
in the Singular Number.                                         Cuckoo          Cuckoos        Bamboo       Bamboos
      For example,                                              Rule 4 : If –y is the last letter of a noun and that –y is
      Boy, girl, man, bird, tree, book, pen, baby, sweater  preceded by a consonant, then change –y into –ies for the
etc.                                                        plural forms.
      A noun that denotes more than one person or thing is      Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
said to be in the Plural Number.                                Spy             Spies          Baby         Babies
      For example,                                              History         Histories      Lady         Ladies
      Boys, girls, men, birds, trees, books, pens, babies,      Fly             Flies          Sky          Skies
sweaters etc.
                                                                Story           Stories        City         Cities
                    How Plural is formed
                                                                Army            Armies         Pony         Ponies
      Generally, the Plurals of nouns are formed by adding
‘s ‘to the singular form.                                       Rule 5 : If there are double vowels to the end of a
      For example,                                          noun, put only —s to the end of that noun for plural.
           Boy—boys                 Girl—girls                  Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
           Bird—birds               Cow—cows                    Lay             Lays           Bay          Bays
           Ship—ships               Desk—desks                  Ray             Rays           Prey         Preys
           Pencil—pencils           Book—books                  Key             Keys           Storey       Storeys
           Cassette—cassettes Film—films                        Tray            Trays          Day          Days
      But, there are some rules of changing singular nouns      Clay            Clays          Play         Plays
into plural ones.                                               Rule 5 : If —f or —fe are the last letters of a noun,
      Rule 1 : If —s, —ss, —sh, —ch, —x and —z are the last then change —f or —fe into —ves.
letters of noun, put —es to the end to make them plural.
                                                                Singular     Plural       Singular        Plural
      Singular      Plural          Singular   Plural
                                                                Knife        Knives       Life            Lives
      Class         Classes         Mass       Masses
                                                                Wife         Wives        Thief           Thieves
      Kiss          Kisses          Toss       Tosses
      Miss          Misses          Bus        Buses            Leaf         Leaves       Loaf            Loaves
      Brush         Brushes         Dish       Dishes           Calf         Calves       Handkerchief    Handkerchieves
      Bush          Bushes          Watch      Watches          Wolf         Wolves       Shelf           Shelves
      Bench         Benches         Match      Matches          Self         Selves
      Branch        Branches        Tax        Taxes            Yet, there are some exceptions to this rule, such as :
      Box           Boxes           Topaz      Topazes          Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
      But, in case of Stomach (Pronounced as Stomak), Mon-      Proof           Proofs         Roof         Roofs
arch (Pronounced as Monark) only —s is needed at their          Chief           Chiefs         Reef         Reefs
end to make them plural.
                                                                Gulf            Gulfs          Belief       Beliefs
      Stomach                  Stomachs
      Monarch                  Monarchs                         Grief           Griefs         Brief        Briefs
      Rule 2 : If there is —O in the end of a noun, put —es     Serf            Serfs          Dwarf        Dwarfs
to the end for plural.                                          Hoof            Hoofs          Strife       Strifes
      Singular      Plural          Singular   Plural           Rule 6 : It is found that a few nouns form their plural
      Hero          Heroes          Zero       Zeroes       by changing the inside vowel of the singular form.
      Volcano       Volcanoes       Mango      Mangoes          Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
      Mosquito      Mosquitoes Echo            Echoes           Man             Men            Woman        Women
      Potato        Potatoes        Buffalo    Buffaloes        Tooth           Teeth          Goose        Geese
      Negro         Negroes         Cargo      Cargoes          Mouse           Mice           Louse        Lice
      Bingo         Bingoes                                     Foot            Feet
      There are some exceptions where only —s is needed
                                                                Rule 7 : There are a few nouns that form their plural
for a plural one in —o ending nouns.
                                                            by adding —en to the singular.
      Singular      Plural          Singular   Plural
                                                                Singular        Plural         Singular     Plural
      Photo         Photos          Piano      Pianos
                                                                Ox              Oxen           Child        Children
      Dynamo        Dynamos         Canto      Cantos
                                                                Rule 8 : There are some nouns which have their sin-
      Quarto        Quartos         Momento    Momentos
                                                            gular and plural forms alike.
      Solo          Solos           Stereo     Stereos